Mitanni was an Indo-Iranian  empire in northern Mesopotamia from c. At the height of Mitanni power, during the 14th century BC, it encompassed what is today southeastern Turkey , northern Syria and northern Iraq, centered around its capital, Washukanni , whose precise location has not been determined by archaeologists. Elam is the name of an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Archaeological evidence associated with Elam has been dated to before BC. Its culture played a crucial role in the Gutian Empire , especially during the Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded it, when the Elamite language remained among those in official use.
The Elamite period is considered a starting point for the history of Iran. The Medes were an ancient Iranian people. They had established their own empire by the 6th century BC, having defeated the Neo-Assyrian Empire with the Chaldeans. They overthrew Urartu later on as well. The Medes are credited with the foundation of the first Iranian empire, the largest of its day until Cyrus the Great established a unified Iranian empire of the Medes and Persian , often referred to as the Achaemenid Persian Empire , by defeating his grandfather and overlord, Astyages the king of Media.
The Achaemenid Empire was the largest and most significant of the Persian Empires , and followed the Median Empire as the second great empire of the Iranians. It is noted in western history as the foe of the Greek city states in the Greco-Persian Wars , for freeing the Israelites from their Babylonian captivity , for its successful model of a centralized bureaucratic administration, the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World , and for instituting Aramaic as the empire's official language.
Because of the Empire's vast extent and long endurance, Persian influence upon the language, religion, architecture, philosophy, law and government of nations around the world lasts to this day. At the height of its power, the Achaemenid dynasty encompassed approximately 8. Parthia was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran.
Their power was based on a combination of the guerrilla warfare of a mounted nomadic tribe, with organizational skills to build and administer a vast empire — even though it never matched in power and extent the Persian empires that preceded and followed it. The Parthian Empire was led by the Arsacid dynasty, which reunited and ruled over significant portions of the Near East and beyond, after defeating and disposing the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire , beginning in the late 3rd century BC. It was the third native dynasty of ancient Iran after the Median and the Achaemenid dynasties.
Parthia had many wars with the Roman Republic and subsequently the Roman Empire , which marked the start of what would be over years of frequent Roman-Persian Wars. The Sassanid Empire , lasting the length of the Late Antiquity period, is considered to be one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods. In many ways the Sassanid period witnessed the highest achievements of Persian civilization and constituted the last great Iranian Empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam.
Sassanid cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe,  Africa,  China, and India, playing a role, for example, in the formation of both European and Asiatic medieval art. The early history of the Hittite empire is known through tablets that may first have been written in the 17th century BC but survived only as copies made in the 14th and 13th centuries BC. However, the real subject of these tablets is Pithana 's son Anitta , who conquered several neighbouring cities, including Hattusa and Zalpuwa Zalpa.
Assyrian inscriptions of Shalmaneser I c.
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Uruartri itself was in the region around Lake Van. The Nairi states were repeatedly subjected to attacks by the Assyrians, especially under Tukulti-Ninurta I c. Between 95—55 BC under the rule of King Tigranes the Great , the kingdom of Armenia became a large and powerful empire stretching from the Caspian to the Mediterranean Seas. During this short time it was considered to be the most powerful state in the Roman East.
The name Israel first appears in the stele of the Egyptian pharaoh Merneptah c.
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Judah emerged somewhat later than Israel, probably during the 9th century BC, but the subject is one of considerable controversy. A series of campaigns by the Neo-Babylonian Empire between and led to the destruction of Judah. The Hasmonean Kingdom followed by the Maccabean revolt had existed during the Hellenistic period and then the Herodian kingdom during the Roman period. The history of Pre-Islamic Arabia before the rise of Islam in the s is not known in great detail. Archaeological exploration in the Arabian peninsula has been sparse; indigenous written sources are limited to the many inscriptions and coins from southern Arabia.
Existing material consists primarily of written sources from other traditions such as Egyptians , Greeks , Persians , Romans , etc. Many small kingdoms prospered from Red sea and Indian Ocean trade. Arab kingdoms are occasionally mentioned in the Hebrew Old Testament under the name of Edom. Though the Ugaritic site is thought to have been inhabited earlier, Neolithic Ugarit was already important enough to be fortified with a wall early on.
The first written evidence mentioning the city comes from the nearby city of Ebla , c. Ugarit passed into the sphere of influence of Egypt, which deeply influenced its art. On the Mediterranean coast of modern-day Israel, Palestine and Lebanon, Canaanite peoples became wealth through trade inspiring Phoenicians.
Phoenicia was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan , with its heartland along the coastal regions of modern-day Lebanon , Syria and Israel. Phoenician civilization was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean between the period of to BC. One Phoenician colony, Carthage , became a powerful nation in its own right. Carthage was founded in BC by Phoenician settlers from the city of Tyre , bringing with them the city-god Melqart. It was more or less under the control of the city-state of Carthage after the fall of Tyre to Babylonian forces.
At the height of the city's influence, its empire included most of the western Mediterranean. The empire was in a constant state of struggle with the Roman Republic , which led to a series of conflicts known as the Punic Wars. After the third and final Punic War , Carthage was destroyed then occupied by Roman forces. Nearly all of the territory held by Carthage fell into Roman hands. Ancient Egypt was a long-lived civilization geographically located in north-eastern Africa. It was concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River reaching its greatest extension during the 2nd millennium BC , which is referred to as the New Kingdom period.
Extensions to the geographical range of ancient Egyptian civilization included, at different times, areas of the southern Levant , the Eastern Desert and the Red Sea coastline, the Sinai Peninsula and the Western Desert focused on the several oases. Ancient Egypt developed over at least three and a half millennia.
It began with the incipient unification of Nile Valley polities around BC and is conventionally thought to have ended in 30 BC when the early Roman Empire conquered and absorbed Ptolemaic Egypt as a province. Though this last did not represent the first period of foreign domination, the Roman period was to witness a marked, if gradual transformation in the political and religious life of the Nile Valley, effectively marking the termination of independent civilisational development.
Motivating and organizing these activities were a socio-political and economic elite that achieved social consensus by means of an elaborate system of religious belief under the figure of a semi -divine ruler usually male from a succession of ruling dynasties and which related to the larger world by means of polytheistic beliefs. The Kushite civilization, which is also known as Nubia, was formed before a period of Egyptian incursion into the area. The first cultures arose in what is now Sudan before the time of a unified Egypt , and the most widespread culture is known as the Kerma civilization.
The two civilization shared an abundance of peaceful cultural interchange and cooperation, including mixed marriages and even the same gods. In the New Kingdom, Nubians became indistinguishable in the archaeological record from Egyptians. The Kingdom of Kush survived longer than that of Egypt and at its greatest extent Nubia ruled over Egypt under the leadership of king Piye , and controlled Egypt during the 8th century BC as the 25th Dynasty.
It is also referred to as Ethiopia in ancient Greek and Roman records. According to Josephus and other classical writers, the Kushite Empire covered all of Africa, and some parts of Asia and Europe at one time or another. In contrast to the Egyptians the Nubians had an unusually high number of ruling queens also known as Kandake , especially during the golden age of the Meroitic Kingdom. Unlike the rest of the world at the time, women in Nubia exercised significant control in society.
The Kushites also built burial mounds and pyramids, and shared some of the same gods worshipped in Egypt, especially Amon and Isis. The Land of Punt, also called Pwenet or Pwene  by the ancient Egyptians , was a trading partner known for producing and exporting gold, aromatic resins, African blackwood , ebony , ivory , slaves and wild animals. The exact location of Punt remains a mystery. The mainstream view is that Punt was located to the south-east of Egypt, most likely on the coast of the Horn of Africa.
Archaeologist Richard Pankhurst academic states;. Consideration of the articles that the Egyptians obtained from Punt, notably gold and ivory, suggests, however, that these were primarily of African origin. This leads us to suppose that the term Punt probably applied more to African than Arabian territory. In the Twelfth dynasty of Egypt, trade with Punt was celebrated in popular literature in " Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor ".
The Axumite Empire was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa centered in present-day Eritrea and northern Ethiopia , it existed from approximately — AD, growing from the Iron Age proto-Aksumite period c. The Kingdom used the name "Ethiopia" as early as the fourth century.
The Empire of Aksum at its height at its climax by the early sixth century extended through much of modern Ethiopia and across the Red Sea to Arabia. The capital city of the empire was Aksum , now in northern Ethiopia. Its ancient capital is found in northern Ethiopia, the Kingdom used the name "Ethiopia" as early as the 4th century. He is also said to have been familiar with Greek literature. Aksum was also one of the first major empires to convert to Christianity.
The civilization's social system is thought to have been highly advanced.
The Nok civilization was considered to be the earliest sub-Saharan producer of life-sized Terracotta which have been discovered by archaeologists. These are symbols of authority associated with ancient Egyptian pharaohs, and the god Osiris, which suggests that an ancient Egyptian style of social structure, and perhaps religion, existed in the area of modern Nigeria during the late Pharonic period. Early Mehrgarh residents lived in mud brick houses, stored their grain in granaries, fashioned tools with local copper ore, and lined their large basket containers with bitumen.
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They cultivated six-row barley, einkorn and emmer wheat, jujubes and dates, and herded sheep, goats and cattle. Residents of the later period BC to BC put much effort into crafts, including flint knapping, tanning, bead production, and metal working. The site was occupied continuously until about BC.
The Indus Valley Civilization c. Minor scattered sites have been found as far away as Turkmenistan. Another name for this civilization is the Harappan Civilization, after the first of its cities to be excavated, Harappa in the Pakistani province of Punjab. The IVC might have been known to the Sumerians as the Meluhha , and other trade contacts may have included Egypt, Africa, however, the modern world discovered it only in the s as a result of archaeological excavations and rail road building.
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