As discussed above in real fabrics the weaves show distinct differences between them unlike in circular cross-section. Increase in float length decreases the scope of cover factors. From these equations crimp and fabric cover can be evaluated using the above two equations along with:. Relation between warp and weft cover factor for jammed fabric race track cross- section. Crimp in the fabric The crimp in fabric is the most important parameter which influences several fabric properties such as extensibility, thickness, compressibility and handle.
It also decides quantity of yarn required to weave a fabric during manufacturing. Therefore control of crimp is vital for geometrical analysis of fabric structure. Such a strategy enables bias of crimp in a preferred direction. This is a new concept and entirely a different use of crimp interchange equation.
Following equation gives a useful relationship between the two directions of the fabric. The above equation is called crimp interchange equation. It may be noted that the parameters l1, l2 and D are invariant; they have the same value in the original fabric and in the new configuration. This basically means it is assumed that the geometry in deformed fabric is same as in undeformed fabric. They offer resistance to bending.
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The elastica model demonstrates the existence of inter yarn force at the crossover points during fabric formation. The crimp balance equation is an offshoot of this analysis. It shows the importance of bending rigidity of warp and weft yarns in influencing the ratio of crimp in both warp and weft directions.
The analysis using the rigid thread thread model [R] gives the value of inter yarn force.
Non-spherical micro- and nanoparticles in nanomedicine - Materials Horizons (RSC Publishing)
It is the aim of this paper to facilitate fabric engineer in determining the fabric parameters for a given value of warp and weft crimp. This approach gives another alternative to engineer fabrics. The scales are also calibrated in terms of crimp. These three curves show very interesting ways in which the values of crimp in warp and weft can be varied in a wide range. Conclusion An attempt has been made to optimize engineering attributes of plain and non-plain weave fabrics as per requirement.
Soft computing is used to solve fabric geometrical model equations and relationships between useful fabric parameters such as thread spacing and crimp, fabric cover and crimp, warp and weft cover are obtained. Such relationships help in guiding the direction for moderating fabric parameters. The full potential of Peirce fabric geometrical model for plain weave has been exploited by soft computing and the same is extended for non-plain constructions.
The inter-relationships between different fabric parameters for jammed structures, non jammed structures and special case in which cross threads are straight are obtained using suitable computing techniques. It is hoped that the fabric designer will be benefited by the flexibility to choose fabric parameters for achieving any end use with desired fabric properties.
The relationship between the cover factors in warp and weft direction is demonstrated for circular and racetrack cross-section for plain, twill, basket and satin weave. As such they enlarge scope of the fabric designer. Soft computing can successfully provide a platform to manoeuvre crimp in warp and weft over a wide range with only three fabric parameters; yarn tex, modular length of warp and modular length of weft yarn. This has enabled solutions by interaction of crimp interchange and crimp balance equations. This exercise offers several solutions for fabric engineering by varying the above three parameters.
References Dickson, J. Grosicki, Z. Hearle, J. Kemp, A. Journal of the Textile Institute, 49, T Love, L. Newton, A. Tightness comparison of woven fabrics, Indian Textile Journal, , The comparison of woven fabrics by reference to their tightness, J. Nirwan, S. Thesis, I. Delhi Peirce, F. Journal of the Textile Institute, 28, T Robinson, A. Seyam, A.
Singhal and Choudhury Weiner, L. Introduction Nowadays, the enterprises all over the world are approaching toward globalizing in design and production in order to be more sustainable. Integration of interior divisions in a company or cooperation among different companies worldwide is of great importance to the competence enhancement for entrepreneurs. There have been a variety of developed applications to integrating different divisions Cao et al. It is necessary for an enterprise to afford the demand of marketing change in small quantity and large variety for the commodity. Thus, it is crucial for textile manufacturer to integrate the design and production processes.
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Generally speaking, at the very beginning a piece of fabric appeals to a consumer by its appearance, which is related to the weave structure and the colors of warp and weft yarns. Next, the characteristics, e.
Finally, the price of the fabric is used as an evaluation basis, by comparing which to the above-mentioned items i. If the value is satisfactory, the fabric will be accepted by the consumer. Otherwise, it will become a slow-moving-item commodity. It is essential for the fabric with good quality to be of appropriate weaving density except being equipped with satisfactory pattern. If the weaving density is too less, the fabric will seem obviously too sparse to have good enough strength.
The more weight consumption of the material yarns is, the higher cost needed for the manufacturing of a piece of fabric is. Thus, it is a crucial issue for a designer to make a good balance between the cost and the essential consumption of the material yarns during woven fabric manufacturing.
Novel Theoretical Approach to the Filtration of Nano Particles Through Non-Woven Fabrics
Woven fabric is manufactured through the interlacing between the warp and weft yarn. The pattern of the woven fabric is illustrated through the layout of the different colors of the warp and weft yarn. Thus design can be a very expensive exercise for manufacturers engaged in the fancy woven fabric market. The introduction of CAD to textiles has provided a major breakthrough in multicolor weave design.
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With the help of CAD, designers can display, examine, and modify ideas very quickly on the color monitor before producing any real fabrics. Thus CAD allows a greater scope for free creative work on the part of designers without incurring a large cost increase. CAD allows a greater flexibility in the designers work, and the designers creativity is more effectively used. Up to the present, designers have got to be satisfied with a limited function of their own chosen color and material yarn recently available to display the simulation of the fabrics.
There are huge amount of researches on the weave structure of woven fabric. Griswold Griswold, proposed algorithms on using Boolean operations in weave pattern design.
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Rasmussen Rasmussen, discusses the theory of binary representation of fabric structures and the possibilities of weave category in order to design families of weave patterns. Rao et al. Shinohara et al. Ozdemir et al. On the other hand, weave pattern design will benefit from some theoretical studies on binary matrices, e. Ma et al. It enables the possibility to quickly produce required weave geometries and weave textures at different levels of detail.
In order to go beyond the simulation function of a conventional CAD system, a design system, which can generate a variety of patterns for a designer to evaluate each of them and scoring them by preference, is of great value to be created and developed. Such a system is developed by using genetic algorithm in this study.
Genetic algorithm GA is powerful and broadly applicable stochastic search and optimization techniques based on principles from evolution theory.
Related Novel theoretical approach to the filtration of nano particles through non-woven fabrics
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