As recommended by BSI,  and Mohamed. For confirmation purposes, the test was duplicatedfor the entire samples.
A decade of sulphite control in Serbian meat industry and the effect of HACCP.
The test was applied only for the samples weight of more than grams. The samples were homogenized using meat mincer passed it at least twice and mixed. Ten grams of the sample was weighted, and transferred into the conical flask. The flasks with contents were heated for 15 min in boiling water bath and repeatedly shaken.
The flask and its contents were allowed to cool at room temperature then 2 ml of solution 1 and 2 ml ofsolution II were added successively and mixed thoroughly after each addition. Solution 1 wasprepared by dissolving of gram of potassium ferrocyanidetrihydrate in one liter distilled water. Solution II was prepared by adding gram of zinc acetate dehydrate and 30 ml glacial acetic acid to ml distilled water. The flask contents then poured into a ml one-mark volumetric flask, diluted to the mark with distilled water, and allowed to stand for 30 minutes at room temperature.
The supernatant liquid was transferred carefully and filtered through the fluted filter paper to obtain a clear solution. Test modification In addition, of filtration using fluted filter, a centrifugation step for one minute was added, and the results showed highly clearance supernatant solution.
Colour measurement Less than 25 ml of aliquot portion of the filtrate was transferred into a ml one-mark volumetric flask-using pipette, and distilled water was added to obtain a volume of about 60 ml. The flask was mixed and the solution was left for 5 minutes at room temperature in the dark. The absorbance of the solution was measured at a wavelength of nm in a 1 cm cell using the spectrophotometer. Calculation Nitrite content expressed in milligrams of sodium nitrite per kilogram, the calculation was done using the following formula:.
V: is the volume in milliliters, of the aliquot portion of the filtrate taken for the photometric determination. Study results were displayed by use of excels and power point of Microsoft Corporation . Meat Factories staff awareness evaluation A questionnaire was designed and circulated among the workers to determine their level of awareness of meat safety and good hygienic practices.
Items on the questionnaire included the fundamentals of processed meat contamination and cross contamination; preventive measures and food safety control activities. A total of short questionnaires were completed on site during working hours. Note: In addition to the general evaluation, an intensive analysis was done for each factory as an individual case study.
Nine case studies were developed. Though the recognition of the bacterial significance at each CCP is highly required to develop the necessary preventive and controls measures to ensure the processed meats safety and quality. To identify the impact of bacterial contamination of each step during processing the samples should be collected from the processing line and tested according to standards .
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The study revealed that there was unusual high degree of contamination of targeted processed beef products in all different meat factories, which is greater than acceptable levels in all products. The numberof microorganism was estimated and expressed as agreed by Heinz and Hautzinger; Ashton [2,21]. The range of a viable count of beef sausages product, minced beef, beef burger kofta products showed high levels of contamination in ranges more than 2.
Normal range is 10 3 to 10 4 organisms per gram as mentioned by Heinz and Hautzinger; Ashton [2,21] who stated that it is quite normal and unavoidable to find bacterial counts of viable count of the order of several thousand per cm 2 on meat surfaces in commercial slaughtering and meat handling. However, viable count numbers exceeding , per gram 10 5 per cm 2 on fresh meat are not acceptable. However, European Commission Scientific Committee on Veterinary Measures estimate the infectious dose range to be from 0.
Thus the detected range has clear implications on public health. Six from seven targeted food borne illness bacteria E. It is worth to mention that, the severity of the biological hazards associated with meat ranged into three categories depending on the hazards effects. Bacillus cereus; Clostridium perfringens; and Staphylococcus aureus infection are considered as moderate, direct, limited spread, and death rarely occurs.
Salmonella enterica typhimurium; Eschericha coli; Shigella; and Listeria monocytogenes infection are considered as moderate, direct, potentially extensive spread, death or serious sequence can occur. Salmonella enterica subspecies Typhi infection is considered as sever, and direct. The higher contamination level by E. Despite E. The result showed that Certain strains are enteropathogenic and represent food born infection, and it can be used as an indicator organism of faecal contamination from raw material or during processing, the same method was followed in my previous study in AlKadaro abattoir .
The most unusual result was the presence of E. Coli in cooked smoked ready to eat mortadella product and the total viable count of E. Coli on mortadella product was found more than the infective dose less than 10 microorganisms per gram was in This unexpected contamination might have beenoccurred either due to insufficient cooking temperature or after smoking.
In various levels, Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the most processed beef products sampled Figure 2. With regard to the potentiality of Staphylococcus aureus pathogen, it is commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and warm blooded animals [25,27]. Usually, the symptoms of staphylococcal intoxication appear when consuming food contains a toxin of less than 1. This toxin level is reached when Staphylococcus aureus populations exceeds 10 5 per gram. However, the study showed that the viable count of S.
Such contamination level is considered hazardous since meat products might not be thermally treated to the degree that is capable of inactivating the heat resistance of enterotoxins which is commonly encountered in this bacterium species. Foodborne illness caused by S.
Due to the long heat treatment and the low a w achieved by the extenders, mortadella product is consider shelf-stable products at moderate ambient temperature and may be stored without refrigeration . However, the study showed that; 7. Salmonella contamination mostly indicated poor hygienic practices, which can enter the food from the raw materials or from meat processing handlers. It was estimated that 10 5 per gram of Salmonella bacteria are required in ingested food to cause Salmonellosis. The growth of Listeria monocytogenes was not detected in all different beef processed products confirmed by repeating the tests Figure 2.
Monocytogenes during its refrigerated shelf life [30,31]. Furthermore, it is stated that the strong listericidal effects were observed when 0.
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Figure 2: Processed beef products contamination by different bacterial species. Bacterial hazards analysis in processed meat products Beef sausage products were found heavily contaminated, the viable count cfu was Various food hazard bacteria were isolated, from the 18 samples of processed sausage beef; E.
Coli Cereus Perfringens The intestines natural casings can contribute in this sausage contamination. Intestines should ideally be processed when still warm as they are easier to manipulate cleaning, sliming, washing and bacterial growth can still be contained and other good manufacturing practices are highly required before applying HACCP system 0. From the beef processing line diagrams assessment, it was observed that frosting and defrosting practices could pose high risks of spore-forming bacteria, such as Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus , theses toxins will be treated even in further cooking.
This step in the process can be considered a critical control point CCP and standard operating procedures SOPs should be established, adapted and monitored. The study revealed that the viable count cfu in the range of more than 10 4 of E. Coli and Staphylococcus aureus was 5. The contamination could be introduced by raw meat, non-meat ingredients and surfaces in contact which meat including tables, meat hooks at least parts in contact with meat , blades of knives, saws, cleavers and axes; and all parts of machinery in contact with meat, fat, sausage mixes and meat ingredients such as frozen meat cutter, grinder, meat mixer and tumbler, meat emulsifier, sausage stuffer, brine injector etc.
Comparing with other products, the minced meat contamination showed more than 10 4 cfu for isolated E. In addition, Shigella spp.
Introduction to HACCP & Food Safety Plan — Food Law
Also, in comparison with other products, minced beef showed low contamination as its considered as first or initial stage of processed beef product and not exposed to such long processing stages as other products, in addition of containing less additives i. Though groundbeef relatively protected from the cross contaminations because usually made from leaner, tougher and less desirable beef with small amount of additives .
The results exposed that the viable count cfu of isolated bacteria from beef burger was matched Doyle. Therefore the viable counts cfu of E coli , Staph aureus, B cereus, C perfringens, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp were The total count of the range of more than 10 4 was found Thus, in recent years, E. Also, raw hamburger meat considered as a vehicle for outbreaks of human Salmonellosis in the United States [28,39].
Contamination of the raw beef combined with improper food-handling practices was found to be an important factor in a substantial proportion of the Salmonella cases . Evidence suggests that the pathogen came from the slaughterhouses that supplied the raw material to the processing plant. Coli .
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